Mesic to dry meadows, disturbed areas, grasslands, shrublands, and forests in the lowland, steppe and montane zones (Douglas et al., 1998). Scattered in coniferous forests, plentiful in broad-leaved forests on water-shedding and water-receiving sites; persists on cut-over sites (Klinka et al., 1989). In upland, moist, well-drained soils, from sea level to mid-elevations in forests and on open slopes, and river banks (Rose et al., 1998).
Characteristic of Moder and Mull humus forms (Klinka et al., 1989).
Nitrogen rich soils (Klinka et al., 1989).
pH 6.0 to 7.8 (Klein, 2003).
Dry to moist (Pojar and MacKinnon, 1994). Tolerates fluctuating ground water; on moisture shedding or moisture receiving sites (Klinka et al., 1989).
Shade tolerant/intolerant (Klinka et al., 1989).
Occurs in early, mid and late-successional stages and as a climax species. It is considered part of the climax species in Douglas-fir in warm, dry habitat types. In thin-leaf alder/snowberry associations it is considered mid-seral and is included as early-seral stages of some western hemlock habitats (USDA Forest Service, 2006).
In Coastal Douglas-fir zone bordering Garry oak communities. Often becomes invasive with Douglas-fir in Garry oak meadows unless controlled (historically by fire).