Mesic to moist thickets, forest edges, river terraces, shorelines, stream banks, clearings and roadsides in the lowland and montane zones. Floodplains, open stream banks, and meadows from low to mid-elevations (Reed, 1993; Pojar and MacKinnon, 1994). Most frequent in floodplains; sporadic in non-forested communities and open-canopy forests on water-shedding sites with fluctuating groundwater tables (Klinka et al., 1989).
Clayey-loam, sandy-loam or sandy soil (Reed, 1993; Pojar and MacKinnon, 1994).
Nitrogen-rich moderately moist to moist soils (Reed, 1993). Characteristic of Moder and Mull humus forms (Klinka et al., 1989).
Moderately moist to moist but well-draining soils (Reed, 1993). Moderately moist to very moist soils (Klinka et al., 1989).
Shade tolerant (Reed, 1993). Shade tolerant/intolerant (Klinka et al., 1989).