Mesic to dry open or closed forests in the lowland steep and montane zones (Douglas et al., 1998), open sites (Pojar et al., 1994) and woods and thickets (Peck, 1961). Occurs from southern BC south through Washington, Oregon to California. Found from sea level to 1800 m in BC (Pojar and MacKinnon, 1994).
Rocky sites with coarse and medium textured, well-drained soils (Pojar and MacKinnon, 1994).
Nitrogen-medium soils (Klinka et al., 1989).
pH 5 to 8 (USDA NRCS, 2001).
Moderately drought tolerant (Keator, 1994). Dry to moderately-dry; characteristic of moisture deficient sites (Klinka et al., 1989).
Shade tolerant but prefers open exposed sites (Klinka et al., 1989).
Early successional to climax. Common on disturbed sites and under open-canopy Douglas-fir forests in the coast and interior (Klinka et al., 1989).
CDF, IDF, ICH dry, PP, BG