Dry to moist meadows, open to shady slopes from near sea level to middle elevations (Pojar and MacKinnon, 1994).
Nitrophitic species preferring base-rich soils (Klinka et al., 1995).
Mildly acidic to moderately alkaline.
Fresh to very moist (Klinka et al., 1995).
Shade tolerant/shade intolerant (Klinka et al., 1995).
Climax to late seral species.