Sub-montane to sub-alpine, circumpolar distribution (transcontinental in North America).
Clayey gleysolic and deep humus soils.
Calcium and nitrogen rich soils.
pH 6.5 to 7.5. Tolerates brackish water and ocean spray.
Water-receiving and water-collecting sites with slow-moving, often stagnant water (Klinka, et al. 1995).
Shade intolerant (Klinka, et al. 1995).
Early seral or wet semi-terrestrial, non-forested communities.