Sub-montane to sub-alpine, occurs in Asia and is transcontinental in North America. Ranges from boreal, to temperate and cool mesothermal climates. Common in grasslands, meadows, open forests and alpine meadows.
Nitrogen poor soils.
Moisture deficient sites. Very dry to moderately dry.
Sun to light shade.
Sporadic successional in young-seral forests. Common climax species on dry rocky outcrops.