Dry to moist meadows, open woods, grasslands and open, disturbed ground from lowlands to near timberline (Pojar and MacKinnon, 1994).
Medium textured soils.
Nitrogen-medium soils (Klinka et al., 1995).
Moderately acidic to mildly alkaline.
Very dry to moderately dry (Klinka et al., 1995).
Shade intolerant to mildly shade tolerant (Klinka et al., 1995).
Climax in meadows and open woodlands. Seral species on moister disturbed ground.
Open woodlands and meadows within Garry oak ecosystems.