Common in moist to dry, open forest, thickets and shoreline bluffs at low elevations (Douglas et al., 1998).
Slightly coarse to fine loamy soils.
Nitrogen-and base-rich soils (Klinka et al., 1995).
Moderately acidic to slightly alkaline (Douglas et al., 2001).
Moist to dry sites (Douglas et al.,1998).
Moderately shade tolerant to shade intolerant (Klinka et al., 1995).
Seral species in moist, open canopied young forests. Climax species on drier sites.
Associated with almost all Garry oak communities from meadows to rocky outcrops.