On wet mossy ground, logs and rocks (sometimes forms large sheets over rock slabs). Also common as an epiphyte on the trunks and branches of broad-leafed trees (especially bigleaf maple). Coastal BC, Washington and Oregon (Pojar and MacKinnon, 1994; Klinka et al., 1989).
Shallow humic or rocky soils to rock faces.
Prefers calcium-rich substrates.
Mildly acidic to moderately calcareous.
Moist to dry. Poikilohydric ability (curls and dries like mosses and lichens until moisture returns) (Pojar and MacKinnon 1994; Klinka et al., 1989; Vitt et al., 1998).
Shade intolerant (Klinka et al., 1989).
Unknown. Assume late seral to climax depending on site (Klinka et al., 1989).
Dominant species in peripheral Garry oak communities in moister regimes on very shallow rocky soils (Romer, 1993).