Cool, moist to dry rocky forests and elevations. Often found on calcium-rich rock cliffs, crevices, ledges and talus slopes at all elevations (Pojar and MacKinnon, 1994). Very widely distributed across North America.
Nitrogen medium, calcium rich.
Slightly acidic to moderately calcarious (Bernh, 2002).
Dry to fresh.
Shade tolerant. Prefers shady sites but will tolerate a limited amount of filtered sunlight (Bernh 2002)